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Klima-, Umwelt- und Ressourcenökonomie

Bücher, Buchbeiträge, Journals und Papers (293 Treffer)

This paper reviews the literature on (potential) green recovery measures in the context of the global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on their macroeconomic effects. We find that spending for renewables and energy efficiency is particularly promising with regard to macroeconomic impacts. Moreover, the empirical evidence suggests that green recovery measures are associated with larger macroeconomic effects compared to conventional non-green recovery spending. We also derive lessons learned with regard to open questions and issues as well as accompanying framework conditions which could enhance a macroeconomically successful implementation of green recovery measures.
Claudia Kettner-Marx, Michael Böheim, Mark Sommer, Robert Gaugl, Udo Bachhiesl, Lia Gruber, Thomas Florian Klatzer, Sonja Wogrin, Kurt Kratena
Renewable Energy, 2024, 2024, (223), S.119957, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2024.119957
Auftraggeber: Klima- und Energiefonds
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Technische Universität Graz
We analyse the (techno- and macro-)economic and distributive effects of a transformation to a renewable electricity system in Austria by 2030, as stipulated by the Austrian government. For the analysis, the macroeconomic model DYNK and ATLANTIS, a partial model of the electricity market, were expanded and linked. Four transformation scenarios conforming with the 100 percent renewable electricity target in Austria on a national balance are examined, integrated into a consistent scenario for the development of the European electricity system. Additionally, sensitivity analyses with respect to the gas price are performed. Although all scenarios achieve 100 percent renewable electricity on a national balance, the analysis shows that electricity from gas-fired power plants will still be needed in 2030 to balance variable renewable generation, to avoid grid congestion, and for heat generation from combined heat and power plants in winter months. Another main conclusion from the simulations is that the transition towards a renewable electricity sector is almost neutral from a socio-economic perspective. It does neither reveal harmful impacts nor lead to high multiplier effects from additional investment. With high natural gas prices in the sensitivity scenarios a decrease in GDP and household income, which might motivate redistributive policies, can be observed.
in: Recommendations toward the Development of Scenarios for Assessing Nature-related Economic and Financial Risks
Buchbeiträge, Network for Greening the Financial System, Dezember 2023, S.69-86, https://www.ngfs.net/en/ngfs-recommendations-toward-development-scenarios-december-2023
Katharina Falkner, Hermine Mitter, Erwin Schmid
Modellierung der Auswirkungen von Niederschlags- und Grundwasserbewirtschaftungsszenarien auf den landwirtschaftlichen Bewässerungsbedarf in Oberösterreich (Modellierung der Auswirkungen von Niederschlags- und Grundwasserbewirtschaftungsszenarien auf den landwirtschaftlichen Bewässerungsbedarf in Oberösterreich)
Austrian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Studies, 2023, S.9-17, https://oega.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/AJARS/32/10_Falkner.pdf
Wir modellieren effiziente Anpassungsmaßnahmen an häufigere und längere Trockenperioden sowie die Auswirkungen auf den landwirtschaftlichen Bewässerungsbedarf, die Produktion und den Nettoerlös in Oberösterreich. Dazu wenden wir einen integrierten Modellverbund – bestehend aus modellierten Niederschlagsszenarien, einem agronomischen Fruchtfolgemodell, einem bio-physikalischen Prozessmodell und einem ökonomischen Landnutzungsoptimierungsmodel l – auf 1 km Rasterebene an. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Bewässerung im Norden und Zentralraum Oberösterreichs eine effiziente Anpassungsmaßnahme an häufigere Trockenperioden ist, verbunden mit einem deutlichen Anstieg des Bewässerungsbedarfs und Rückgängen der landwirtschaftlichen Nettoerlöse. Hingegen entsteht im Süden auch unter trockeneren Bedingungen nur ein geringer Bewässerungsbedarf. Neben Bewässerung führt eine effiziente Anpassung zu Änderungen bei Fruchtfolgen, Bodenbearbeitungsverfahren und Zwischenfruchtanbau. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen die Entwicklung von Strategien zur effizienten Klimawandelanpassung in der Land- und Wasserwirtschaft in Oberösterreich.
Shared, autonomous electric vehicles (SAEVs) are expected to enter the market in the coming decades. Using MATSim, we simulate a use case where SAEVs are introduced in multiple suburban zones at the outskirts of Vienna (Austria), which are characterized by relatively low population density, but have access to at least one rail-based public transport stop. For all combinations of different fleet sizes and fare levels, we find that a relatively small share of car trips by residents of these zones (7 to 14 percent) are replaced by SAEVs, generating CO2 emissions reductions of 5 to 11 percent. Moreover, 23 to 35 percent of trips previously undertaken by foot or bicycle are replaced by SAEVs, as well as 10 to 20 percent of public transport trips. The potential of SAEVs to reduce the use and ownership of private vehicles in suburban areas therefore seems to be rather limited, which is also reflected in our finding that one SAEV usually replaces only 2 to 4 private vehicles. The potential becomes somewhat larger when the usage and ownership of private cars is assumed to become more expensive, leading to 17 to 20 percent of car trips being replaced by SAEVs and generating CO2 emissions reductions of up to 32 percent.
Climate change disproportionately impacts capital and output in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited fiscal space and high dependence on capital good imports further curtail their ability to make timely climate-resilient investments. In this paper we present a demand-driven model that is supply-side constrained due to insufficient build up of production capacity. Calibrating the model to Fiji, we evaluate growth pathways for three climate futures – 2C, 3C, and 4C global warming by the end of the century. We evaluate the role of a public climate fund to enable partial recovery that is financed through four different schemes – debt-led recovery, higher tax on households, higher taxes on capitalists, and unconditional grants from the rest of the world. Recovery is possible in the 2C scenario, but the 3C and 4C scenarios increasingly face higher investment costs in the face of lower growth and saving rates. In the 4C scenario, even the most generous unconditional grants scheme fails to prevent the downward spiral of hitting capacity constraints despite an initial boost to output. These insights underscore the need for effective and equitable domestic climate policies and affordable finance and compensation to support sustainable development in vulnerable countries.
in: Sustainability and Innovations Supporting it. Perspectives, Opportunities and Concept for Sustainable Bakeries
Buchbeiträge, Food2Multimedia GmbH, Radbruch, Oktober 2023, S.9-15
Abrupt changes are already showing a dramatic impact on the food supply chain. Food businesses will need to become sustainable to be resilient and thrive against a backdrop of complex disruptions. A clear goal is key.
Corina van Dyck, Franz Sinabell
in: Agrar- und Ernährungssysteme im Wandel: Chancen und Herausforderungen für Landwirtschaft und ländliche Räume
Buchbeiträge, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Agrarökonomie, Wien, September 2023, S.75-76, https://oega.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Tagung/2023/tagungsband_2023_mit_Seitenangaben_1.pdf
Understanding a food market requires timely data and adequate models of consumer demand. For Austria, many data sets on food consumption are available, however, the understanding of food demand has been fragmented. This paper estimates a demand system for different types of food for Austria. We use the censored LA/EASI demand system and apply it to eight types of food. By combining micro-data of various waves of consumer surveys, we derive non-linear Engel curves and heterogeneous preferences over time. As Austrian data does not include prices at household-level we reconstruct those by using Stone-Lewbel (SL) price indices. After the estimation of the demand system, we calculate own price elasticities for the eight different types of food.
Andrea Pufahl, Andreas Resch, Franz Sinabell
in: Agrar- und Ernährungssysteme im Wandel: Chancen und Herausforderungen für Landwirtschaft und ländliche Räume
Buchbeiträge, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Agrarökonomie, Wien, September 2023, S.45-46, https://oega.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Tagung/2023/tagungsband_2023_mit_Seitenangaben_1.pdf
In 2023, an overhauled Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is introduced in the EU. Member States (MS) are given more discretion than before. They had to develop CAP-Strategic Plans for the period 2023-2027. How well these plans are working needs to be evaluated twice by 2031. Planned evaluation activities must be described in an evaluation plan which is based on an evaluation concept comprising evaluation topics and questions, evaluation studies and their timing and data requirements. This concept was developed through a large collaborative effort and respects legal requirements and good evaluation practice.
in: Agrar- und Ernährungssysteme im Wandel: Chancen und Herausforderungen für Landwirtschaft und ländliche Räume
Buchbeiträge, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Agrarökonomie, Wien, September 2023, S.19-20, https://oega.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Tagung/2023/tagungsband_2023_mit_Seitenangaben_1.pdf
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in all sectors – including agriculture – is key to reach the ambitious European and national climate targets. We analyse four mitigation scenarios with increasing efforts to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The mitigation scenarios were developed in a stakeholder process and combine several newly implemented and currently developed policies, agronomic and (socio-)economic developments. By applying three quantitative models, we analyse their effects on (i) agricultural production activities, (ii) agricultural GHG emissions, and (iii) the national economy (i.e., gross value added) and employment. The model results show that a significant reduction in GHG emissions comes with a significant reduction in agricultural production.