This paper reviews the literature on (potential) green recovery measures in the context of the global financial crisis and
the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on their macroeconomic effects. We find that spending for renewables and energy efficiency
is particularly promising with regard to macroeconomic impacts. Moreover, the empirical evidence suggests that green recovery
measures are associated with larger macroeconomic effects compared to conventional non-green recovery spending. We also derive
lessons learned with regard to open questions and issues as well as accompanying framework conditions which could enhance
a macroeconomically successful implementation of green recovery measures.
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Technische Universität Graz
We analyse the (techno- and macro-)economic and distributive effects of a transformation to a renewable electricity system
in Austria by 2030, as stipulated by the Austrian government. For the analysis, the macroeconomic model DYNK and ATLANTIS,
a partial model of the electricity market, were expanded and linked. Four transformation scenarios conforming with the 100
percent renewable electricity target in Austria on a national balance are examined, integrated into a consistent scenario
for the development of the European electricity system. Additionally, sensitivity analyses with respect to the gas price are
performed. Although all scenarios achieve 100 percent renewable electricity on a national balance, the analysis shows that
electricity from gas-fired power plants will still be needed in 2030 to balance variable renewable generation, to avoid grid
congestion, and for heat generation from combined heat and power plants in winter months. Another main conclusion from the
simulations is that the transition towards a renewable electricity sector is almost neutral from a socio-economic perspective.
It does neither reveal harmful impacts nor lead to high multiplier effects from additional investment. With high natural gas
prices in the sensitivity scenarios a decrease in GDP and household income, which might motivate redistributive policies,
can be observed.
Wir modellieren effiziente Anpassungsmaßnahmen an häufigere und längere Trockenperioden sowie die Auswirkungen auf den landwirtschaftlichen
Bewässerungsbedarf, die Produktion und den Nettoerlös in Oberösterreich. Dazu wenden wir einen integrierten Modellverbund
– bestehend aus modellierten Niederschlagsszenarien, einem agronomischen Fruchtfolgemodell, einem bio-physikalischen Prozessmodell
und einem ökonomischen Landnutzungsoptimierungsmodel l – auf 1 km Rasterebene an. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Bewässerung
im Norden und Zentralraum Oberösterreichs eine effiziente Anpassungsmaßnahme an häufigere Trockenperioden ist, verbunden mit
einem deutlichen Anstieg des Bewässerungsbedarfs und Rückgängen der landwirtschaftlichen Nettoerlöse. Hingegen entsteht im
Süden auch unter trockeneren Bedingungen nur ein geringer Bewässerungsbedarf. Neben Bewässerung führt eine effiziente Anpassung
zu Änderungen bei Fruchtfolgen, Bodenbearbeitungsverfahren und Zwischenfruchtanbau. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen die Entwicklung
von Strategien zur effizienten Klimawandelanpassung in der Land- und Wasserwirtschaft in Oberösterreich.
Stefanie Peer, Johannes Müller, Asjad Naqvi, Markus Straub
Shared, autonomous electric vehicles (SAEVs) are expected to enter the market in the coming decades. Using MATSim, we simulate
a use case where SAEVs are introduced in multiple suburban zones at the outskirts of Vienna (Austria), which are characterized
by relatively low population density, but have access to at least one rail-based public transport stop. For all combinations
of different fleet sizes and fare levels, we find that a relatively small share of car trips by residents of these zones (7
to 14 percent) are replaced by SAEVs, generating CO2 emissions reductions of 5 to 11 percent. Moreover, 23 to 35 percent of
trips previously undertaken by foot or bicycle are replaced by SAEVs, as well as 10 to 20 percent of public transport trips.
The potential of SAEVs to reduce the use and ownership of private vehicles in suburban areas therefore seems to be rather
limited, which is also reflected in our finding that one SAEV usually replaces only 2 to 4 private vehicles. The potential
becomes somewhat larger when the usage and ownership of private cars is assumed to become more expensive, leading to 17 to
20 percent of car trips being replaced by SAEVs and generating CO2 emissions reductions of up to 32 percent.
Climate change disproportionately impacts capital and output in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited fiscal space
and high dependence on capital good imports further curtail their ability to make timely climate-resilient investments. In
this paper we present a demand-driven model that is supply-side constrained due to insufficient build up of production capacity.
Calibrating the model to Fiji, we evaluate growth pathways for three climate futures – 2C, 3C, and 4C global warming by the
end of the century. We evaluate the role of a public climate fund to enable partial recovery that is financed through four
different schemes – debt-led recovery, higher tax on households, higher taxes on capitalists, and unconditional grants from
the rest of the world. Recovery is possible in the 2C scenario, but the 3C and 4C scenarios increasingly face higher investment
costs in the face of lower growth and saving rates. In the 4C scenario, even the most generous unconditional grants scheme
fails to prevent the downward spiral of hitting capacity constraints despite an initial boost to output. These insights underscore
the need for effective and equitable domestic climate policies and affordable finance and compensation to support sustainable
development in vulnerable countries.
in: Sustainability and Innovations Supporting it. Perspectives, Opportunities and Concept for Sustainable Bakeries
Buchbeiträge, Food2Multimedia GmbH, Radbruch, Oktober 2023, S.9-15
Abrupt changes are already showing a dramatic impact on the food supply chain. Food businesses will need to become sustainable
to be resilient and thrive against a backdrop of complex disruptions. A clear goal is key.
Understanding a food market requires timely data and adequate models of consumer demand. For Austria, many data sets on food
consumption are available, however, the understanding of food demand has been fragmented. This paper estimates a demand system
for different types of food for Austria. We use the censored LA/EASI demand system and apply it to eight types of food. By
combining micro-data of various waves of consumer surveys, we derive non-linear Engel curves and heterogeneous preferences
over time. As Austrian data does not include prices at household-level we reconstruct those by using Stone-Lewbel (SL) price
indices. After the estimation of the demand system, we calculate own price elasticities for the eight different types of food.
In 2023, an overhauled Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is introduced in the EU. Member States (MS) are given more discretion
than before. They had to develop CAP-Strategic Plans for the period 2023-2027. How well these plans are working needs to be
evaluated twice by 2031. Planned evaluation activities must be described in an evaluation plan which is based on an evaluation
concept comprising evaluation topics and questions, evaluation studies and their timing and data requirements. This concept
was developed through a large collaborative effort and respects legal requirements and good evaluation practice.
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in all sectors – including agriculture – is key to reach the ambitious European and
national climate targets. We analyse four mitigation scenarios with increasing efforts to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture.
The mitigation scenarios were developed in a stakeholder process and combine several newly implemented and currently developed
policies, agronomic and (socio-)economic developments. By applying three quantitative models, we analyse their effects on
(i) agricultural production activities, (ii) agricultural GHG emissions, and (iii) the national economy (i.e., gross value
added) and employment. The model results show that a significant reduction in GHG emissions comes with a significant reduction
in agricultural production.