In the "Fit for 55" package of July 2021, the European Commission proposed inter alia a revision of the energy taxation directive
with the intent of increasing tax rates for fossil fuels that should contribute to achieving the EU's emission reduction targets
for 2030. Since then, climate policy challenges in the EU have been amplified by sharp increases in electricity and gas prices
mainly as a result of the war in Ukraine. Energy price spikes have led to the implementation of numerous compensation measures
for households and firms in EU member countries. In this article, we provide an overview of the discussion on energy taxation
in the EU and analyse compensation measures implemented during the energy crisis. We find that energy cost related compensation
measures counter climate policy efforts. A stronger focus on vulnerable groups would have reduced the overall costs of measures
and entailed stronger energy efficiency incentives.